The wide use of concrete in the nuclear industry has resulted in severe contamination of concrete surfaces with radionuclides. A substantial proportion of decommissioning costs are spent decontaminating concrete, currently using physical and chemical methods of removal. Chemical methods include “surface cleaning” and “surface removal” involving both aggressive physical and chemical processes. These methods, while effective and inexpensive, are inherently hazardous and can generate significant volumes of secondary waste. Physical “surface cleaning” techniques include brushing, wiping, flushing, vacuuming and the use of strippable coatings. Although these physical techniques can be used for virtually all regular surfaces, they are destructive, noisy, time consuming, generate airborne particulates or wastewater, and have higher exposure and other risks to workers. Opportunities exist for novel methods which combine efficiency with a more environmentally and user-friendly decontamination solution.