Hemodialysis treatments have become routine but it is well documented that substantial blood loss resulting from VND is a rare, but potentially fatal complication. At typical hemodialysis blood flow rates of 400-500 mL/minute, it can take only a few minutes for a patient to lose over 40% of their blood volume. With the incidence and prevalence of end- stage renal disease (ESRD) rising worldwide due to changing demographics, stringent guidelines and recommendations have been introduced to prevent these incidents. Monitoring devices have also been recommended but in clinical practice have been found to have a high incidence of false positive alarms, leading to compliance and confidence issues. In addition, the monitors are “stand alone” systems which don’t trigger if they fall off or are removed, nor do they communicate with the dialysis machine. Novel technologies are required that can provide more effective, intelligent monitoring of VND during hemodialysis that is user-friendly and safe.